James Stewart (actor)

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James Stewart

Jimmy Stewart, photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1934
Birth name James Maitland Stewart
Born May 20, 1908
Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA
Died July 2 , 1997
Los Angeles, California
Best Actor, 1940
The Philadelphia Story

James Maitland "Jimmy" Stewart ( May 20, 1908 – July 2, 1997) was an iconic, Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his homebred screen persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for five Oscars, winning one in competition and one life achievement.

Born in Indiana, Pennsylvania near Pittsburgh, he first pursued a career as an architect before being drawn to the theatre in college. His first success came as an actor on Broadway, before making his Hollywood debut in 1935. Stewart's career gained momentum after his well-received Frank Capra films, including his Academy Award nominated role in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. Throughout his seven decades in Hollywood, Stewart cultivated a versatile career and recognized screen image in such classics as The Philadelphia Story, Harvey, and Vertigo.

Along with fellow screen icon James Cagney, Stewart became so familiar to American audiences that he was most often referred to by them as "Jimmy" Stewart — a billing never found on the credits of any of his films.

Stewart left his mark on a wide range of film genres, including screwball comedies, westerns, and suspense thrillers. He worked for a number of renowned directors later in his career, most notably Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, and Anthony Mann. He won many of the industry's highest honours and earned Lifetime Achievement awards from every major film organization. He died in 1997, leaving behind a legacy of classic performance, and is considered one of the finest actors of the " Golden Age of Hollywood." He was named the third Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute.


Early life and career

James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, to devoutly Presbyterian parents, Alexander M. Stewart and Elizabeth Ruth Jackson, in Indiana, Pennsylvania. The son of a prosperous hardware store owner, he was expected to continue the business, which had been in the family for three generations. The young Stewart was first attracted to aviation, but abandoned dreams of being a pilot to attend Princeton University in 1928 after graduating from Mercersburg Academy. Stewart took quickly to architecture, and was to continue pursuing the field as a graduate student, but he gradually became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the famous Princeton Triangle Club.

His talents led him to be invited to the University Players, a performing arts club comprised of Ivy League musicians and thespians. Taking bit parts in the Players' productions during the summer of 1932, he moved to New York City in the fall, where he shared an apartment with rising actor Henry Fonda and director/playwright Joshua Logan. In November he was cast in his first major stage production, as a chauffeur in the Broadway comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines. The play was a moderate success and brought more substantial stage roles for Stewart, including the 1934 hit, Page Miss Glory, and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack.

With several favorably reviewed performances on Broadway, he attracted the interest of MGM, and signed a contract with the company in April 1935. At first, he had trouble breaking into Hollywood due to his gangly looks and shy, humble screen presence. His first film was the poorly received Spencer Tracy vehicle, The Murder Man, but Rose-Marie, an adaptation of a popular operetta, was more successful. After mixed success in film, he received his first substantial part in 1936's After the Thin Man, playing a psychotic killer. Stewart found his footing in Hollywood thanks largely to ex-University Player Margaret Sullavan, who campaigned for Stewart to be her leading man in the 1936 romantic comedy Next Time We Love and rehearsed extensively with him.

Stewart was a lifelong supporter of Scouting. He was a Second Class Scout when he was a youth, an adult Scout leader, and a recipient of the prestigious Silver Buffalo Award from the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). He made advertisements for BSA, which led to him sometimes incorrectly being identified as an Eagle Scout.

Prewar success

The 6-foot, 3-inch tall Stewart began a successful partnership with director Frank Capra in 1938, when he was loaned out to Columbia Pictures to star in You Can't Take It With You. The heartwarming Depression-era film, starring matinee idol Jean Arthur, went on to win the 1938 Best Picture Academy Award. 1939 saw Stewart team with Capra and Arthur again for the political comedy-drama, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. Stewart replaced intended star Gary Cooper in the film about an idealistic man thrown into the political arena. Upon the film's October release, it garnered critical praise and became a box office success. For his performance, Stewart was nominated for the first of five Academy Awards for Best Actor. Destry Rides Again, also released that year, became Stewart's first western film, a genre for which he would become famous later in his career.

1940 saw Stewart and Margaret Sullavan teaming again for two films. The first, the Ernst Lubitsch romantic comedy, The Shop Around the Corner, starred Stewart and Sullavan as co-workers unknowingly involved in a pen-pal romance who cannot stand each other in real life (This was later remade into the romantic comedy You've Got Mail with Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan). The Mortal Storm, directed by Frank Borzage, was one of the first blatantly anti-Nazi films to be produced in Hollywood, and featured the pair as a husband and wife caught in turmoil upon Hitler's rise to power. He also starred opposite Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant in George Cukor's classic The Philadelphia Story. His performance as an intrusive, fast-talking reporter earned him his only Academy Award in a competitive category (Best Actor, 1941). Stewart gave the Oscar statuette to his father, who displayed it in the window of his hardware store for many years.

He went on to appear in a series of screwball comedies with varying levels of success. Stewart followed the mediocre No Time for Comedy (1940) and Come Live with Me (1941) with the Judy Garland musical Ziegfeld Girl and the George Marshall romantic comedy Pot o' Gold. Foreseeing war on the horizon, Stewart enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps in March 1941. Stewart's enlistment coincided with the lapse in his MGM contract and marked a turning point in Stewart's career.

Wartime activity

Stewart as a colonel
Stewart as a colonel

The Stewart family had deep military roots: both grandfathers had fought in the Civil War, and his father had served during both the Spanish-American War and World War I. Jimmy considered his father to be the biggest influence on his life, so it is not surprising that when another war came, another Stewart would be in uniform. With his private pilot's licence in hand and a smattering of flying time, it was also inevitable that Jimmy Stewart would seek to become a military flyer.

Nearly a year before the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour, Stewart attempted to join the United States Army Air Corps, though his enlistment was initially denied due to a weight problem. Stewart came in under the weight requirement and was consequently rejected for being under-weight. The USAAF had strict height and weight requirements for new recruits and Stewart was five pounds under the standard. To get up to 148 pounds, he enlisted the help of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's muscle man, Don Loomis, who was legendary for his ability to add or subtract pounds in his studio gymnasium. Refusing to accept the inevitable, he persuaded the AAF enlistment officer to run new tests, this time skipping the weigh-in, with the result that Stewart successfully enlisted in the Army in March 1941. He became the first major movie star to wear a uniform.

Since the United States had yet to declare war on Germany and because of the Army's unwillingness to put celebrities on the front, Stewart was held back from combat duty, though he did earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant and completed pilot training. He later became an instructor pilot for the B-17 Flying Fortress stationed in Albuquerque, NM.

While petitioning his superiors for combat assignment, Stewart aligned himself with the First Motion Picture Unit and starred and produced a number of training and educational films. Between 1942 and the end of the war, he appeared in nearly a dozen productions, some of which were screened theatrically in civilian theaters.

Col. Stewart being awarded the Croix de guerre with palm by Lt. Gen. Henri Valin, Chief of Staff of the French Air Force, for his role in the liberation of France. USAF photo.
Col. Stewart being awarded the Croix de guerre with palm by Lt. Gen. Henri Valin, Chief of Staff of the French Air Force, for his role in the liberation of France. USAF photo.

In August 1943 he was finally assigned to the 445th Bombardment Group in Sioux City, Iowa, first as Operations Officer of the 703rd Bombardment Squadron, and then its commander. In December, the 445th Bombardment Group flew its B-24 Liberator bombers to Tibenham, England, and immediately began combat operations. While flying missions over Germany, Stewart was promoted to Major. In March 1944, he was transferred to the 453rd Bombardment Group, a new B-24 outfit that had been experiencing difficulties, as Group Operations Officer. In 1944 he twice received the Distinguished Flying Cross for actions in combat, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. He also received the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters. In July 1944, after flying 20 combat missions, Stewart was made Chief of Staff of the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force. Before the war ended he was promoted to Colonel, one of only a few Americans to rise from private to colonel in four years.

Stewart continued to play an active role in the United States Air Force Reserves after the war, achieving the rank of Brigadier General on July 23, 1959. Stewart did not often talk of his wartime service, perhaps due to his desire to be seen as a regular soldier doing his duty instead of as a celebrity. He did appear on the TV series, The World At War, and discussed his participation as a squadron commander in the October 17, 1943, bombing mission to Schweinfurt — the mission known in USAF history as Black Thursday due to the incredibly high casualties it sustained. Fittingly, he was identified only as "James Stewart, Squadron Commander" in the documentary.

Iin 1966, Brigadier General James Stewart rode along as an observer on a B-52 Stratofortress bombing run during the Vietnam War, though he did not fly any duty missions during that conflict. Stewart finally retired from the Air Force on May 31, 1968, after 27 years of service. At the time of his B-52 mission, he refused the release of any publicity regarding his participation as he did not want it treated as a stunt for glory, but as his job as an officer in the reserves.

Postwar success

Stewart, Karolyn Grimes and Donna Reed in It's a Wonderful Life.
Stewart, Karolyn Grimes and Donna Reed in It's a Wonderful Life.

Upon James Stewart's return to Hollywood in the fall 1945, he decided not to renew his MGM contract. Instead, Stewart signed with an MCA talent agency. The move made Stewart one of the first independently contracted actors and gave him more freedom to choose the roles he wished to play. For the remainder of his career, Stewart was able to work without limits to director and studio availability.

For his first film in five years, Stewart appeared in his third and final Frank Capra production, It's a Wonderful Life. Stewart appeared as George Bailey, a small-town man and upstanding citizen, who becomes increasingly frustrated by his ordinary existence and financial troubles. Driven to suicide on Christmas Eve, he is led to reassess his life by an "angel-in-training," played by Henry Travers. Though the film was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Stewart's third Best Actor nomination, it received only moderate success at the box office, possibly due to its dark nature. However, in the decades since the film's release, it grew to define Stewart's film persona and is widely considered as a sentimental Christmas film classic and, according to the American Film Institute, one of the best movies ever made.

Stewart also returned to the stage for the Mary Chase-penned comedy Harvey, which opened to nearly universal praise in November 1944. Elwood P. Dowd, the protagonist and Stewart's character, is a wealthy eccentric, whose best friend is an invisible rabbit, living with his sister and niece. His eccentricity, especially the friendship with the rabbit, is ruining the niece's hopes of finding a husband. While trying to have Dowd committed to a sanitorium, his sister is committed herself while the play follows Dowd on an ordinary day in his not-so-ordinary life. James Stewart took over the role from Frank Fay in 1947 and gained an increased Broadway following in the unconventional play. The play, which ran for nearly three years with Stewart as its star, was successfully adapted into a 1950 film, directed by Henry Koster, with Stewart playing Dowd and Josephine Hull as his sister, Veta. For his performance in the film, Stewart received his fourth Best Actor nomination.

After Harvey, the comedic adventure film Malaya and the conventional biographical film The Stratton Story in 1949, Stewart entered what many critics cite as his "golden era" as an actor. During the 1950s, he took on more challenging roles and expanded into the western and suspense genres, thanks largely to collaborations with directors Alfred Hitchcock and Anthony Mann. Other notable performances by Stewart during this time include the critically acclaimed 1950 Delmer Daves western Broken Arrow, which featured Stewart as an ex-soldier making peace with the Apache; a troubled clown in the 1952 Best Picture The Greatest Show on Earth; and Stewart's role as Charles Lindbergh in Billy Wilder's 1957 film The Spirit of St. Louis.

Collaborations with Hitchcock and Mann

James Stewart's collaborations with director Anthony Mann expanded Stewart's popularity and expanded his career into the realm of the western. Stewart's first appearance in a film helmed by Mann came with the 1950 western classic, Winchester '73. The film, which became a massive box office hit upon its release, set the pattern for their future collaborations. Other Stewart-Mann westerns, such as Bend of the River ( 1952), The Naked Spur ( 1953), The Far Country ( 1954), and The Man from Laramie ( 1955) were perennial favorites among young audiences entranced by the American West. Frequently, the films featured Stewart as a troubled cowboy seeking redemption, while facing corrupt cattlemen, ranchers and outlaws. Their collaborations laid the foundation for many of the westerns of the 1950s and remain popular today.

Stewart and Mann also collaborated on other films outside the western genre. 1953's The Glenn Miller Story was critically acclaimed, garnering Stewart a BAFTA Award nomination, and (together with The Spirit of St. Louis) cemented the popularity of Stewart's portrayals of "American heroes." Thunder Bay, released the same year, transplanted the plot arch of their western collaborations in the present day, with Stewart as a Louisiana oil-driller facing corruption. Strategic Air Command, released in 1955, allowed Stewart to use his experiences in the United States Air Force on film.

Stewart's starring role in Winchester '73 was also a turning point in Hollywood. Universal Studios, who wanted Stewart to appear in both that film and Harvey, balked at his $200,000 asking price. Stewart's agent, Lew Wasserman, brokered an alternate deal, in which Stewart would appear in both films for no pay, in exchange for a percentage of the profits and cast approval. It wasn't the first such deal at Universal; Abbott and Costello also had a profit participation contract, but they were no longer top-flight moneymakers by 1950. Stewart ended up earning about $600,000 for Winchester '73 alone. Hollywood's other stars quickly capitalized on this new way of doing business, which further undermined the decaying " studio system."

The second collaboration to define Stewart's career in the 1950s was with acclaimed mystery and suspense director Alfred Hitchcock. Stewart had previously appeared in Hitchcock's technologically innovative 1948 film Rope, and the two collaborated for the second of four times on the 1954 hit Rear Window. Photographer L.B. "Jeff" Jeffries, the central character of the film, portrayed by Stewart, projects his fantasies and fears onto the people he observes out his apartment window while on hiatus due to a broken leg. Jeffries gets into more than he can handle, however, when he believes he has witnessed a salesman murder his wife.

After starring in Hitchcock's remake of the director's own production, The Man Who Knew Too Much, Stewart starred in what many consider Hitchcock's most personal film, Vertigo. The film starred Stewart as Scottie, a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman he is shadowing. Scottie's obsession inevitably leads to the destruction of everything he once had and believed in. Though the film is widely considered a classic today, it met with negative reviews and poor box office receipts upon its release, and marked the last collaboration between Stewart and Hitchcock. The director blamed the film's failure on Stewart looking too old to still attract audiences, and replaced him with Cary Grant for North by Northwest (1959). In reality, Grant was actually four years older than Stewart. (Stewart's character's fear of heights in Vertigo is ironic considering Stewart's actual flying experiences.)

Career in the 1960s and 1970s

In 1960, James Stewart was awarded the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and nominated for his fifth and final Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in the 1959 Otto Preminger film Anatomy of a Murder. The early courtroom drama starred Stewart as Paul Biegler, the lawyer of a man who claims temporary insanity after murdering the man who raped his wife. Stewart's nomination was one of seven for the film, and saw his transition into the final decades of his career.

The early 1960s saw Stewart taking lead roles in three John Ford films. The first, 1962's twist-ending The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (with John Wayne), is a classic "psychological" western, with Stewart featured as an Eastern attorney who goes against his nonviolent principles when he is forced to confront a psychopathic outlaw (played by Lee Marvin) in a small frontier town. At story's end, Stewart's character — now a rising political figure — faces a difficult ethical choice as he attempts to reconcile his actions with his personal integrity on the day Liberty Valance was shot. The film's billing is unusual in that Stewart was given top billing over Wayne in the trailers and on the posters but Wayne had top billing in the film itself, a system later repeated by Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman in All the President's Men. How the West Was Won and Cheyenne Autumn were western epics released in 1962 and 1964 respectively. While the Cinerama production How the West Was Won went on to win three Oscars and reaped massive box office figures, Cheyenne Autumn, in which a white-suited Stewart played Wyatt Earp in a long sequence in the middle of the movie, failed domestically and was quickly forgotten.

Having played his last romantic lead in 1958's Bell Book and Candle, Stewart transitioned into more family-related films in the 1960s. These included the successful Henry Koster outing Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation ( 1962), and the less memorable films Take Her, She's Mine ( 1963) and Dear Brigitte ( 1965), which featured French model Brigitte Bardot. The Civil War period film Shenandoah (1965) and the western family film The Rare Breed fared better at the box office; the Civil War movie was a smash hit in the South.

After a progression of lesser western films in the late '60s and early '70s, James Stewart transitioned from cinema to television. He first starred in the NBC comedy The Jimmy Stewart Show, which featured Stewart as a college professor. He followed it with the CBS mystery Hawkins, in which he played a small town lawyer investigating his cases. The series garnered Stewart a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Dramatic TV Series, but failed to gain a wide audience and was cancelled after one season. During this time, Stewart periodically appeared on Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show, sharing poems he had written at different times in his life. His poems were later compiled into a short collection titled Jimmy Stewart and His Poems (1989).

Stewart finished the decade with supporting roles in John Wayne's final film, The Shootist (1976), Airport '77, the 1978 remake of The Big Sleep with Robert Mitchum, and The Magic of Lassie (1978). In The Shootist, Stewart played a doctor giving Wayne's gunfighter a terminal cancer diagnosis. At one point, both Wayne and Stewart were flubbing their lines repeatedly and Stewart turned to director Don Siegel and said, "You'd better get two better actors."

Later career and death

After filming several television movies in the 1980s, including the popular Mr. Krueger's Christmas, James Stewart retired from acting to spend time with his family. Following his retirement he suffered from many health problems including heart disease, skin cancer, deafness and senility. He returned only to voice Sheriff Wylie Burp in the successful 1991 animated film An American Tail: Fievel Goes West.

In 1989, Stewart joined Hollywood entrepreneur Peter F. Paul in founding the American Spirit Foundation to apply entertainment industry resources to developing innovative approaches to public education and to assist the emerging democracy movements in the former Iron Curtain countries and Russia. Paul arranged for Stewart, through the offices of President Boris Yeltsin, to send a special print of It's A Wonderful Life, translated by Moscow University, to Russia as the first American program ever to be broadcast on Russian television. On January 5, 1992, coinciding with the first day of the existence of the democratic Commonwealth of Independent States and Russia, and the first free Russian Orthodox Christmas Day, Russian TV Channel 2 broadcast It's A Wonderful Life to 200 million Russians who celebrated an American holiday tradition with the American people for the first time in Russian history.

In association with politicians and celebrities that included President Ronald Reagan, Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger, California Governor George Deukmejian, Bob Hope and Charlton Heston, Stewart worked from 1987 to 1993 on projects that enhanced the public appreciation and understanding of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.

Stewart died at the age of 89 on July 2, 1997, of cardiac arrest and a pulmonary embolism following a long illness from respiratory problems. His death came just one day after fellow screen legend and The Big Sleep co-star Robert Mitchum had died of lung cancer and emphysema. Stewart is interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.

Jimmy Stewart has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1708 Vine Street. In 1972, he was inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He was awarded various lifetime achievement awards from the Academy Awards (1985), American Film Institute (1980), Lincoln Centre (1990), Golden Globe Awards (1965), National Board of Review (1990) and the Screen Actors Guild (1969).

In his hometown, Indiana, Pennsylvania, a statue of Stewart was erected on the lawn of the Indiana County Courthouse on May 20, 1983 to celebrate Stewart's 75th birthday. In 1995, The Jimmy Stewart Museum, a museum dedicated to his life and career, opened as well in Indiana, Pennsylvania.

In honour of his years of service with the U.S. Air Force, Gen. Jimmy Stewart's original WWII A-2 jacket (a Rough Wear 1401 contract) has been displayed for many years at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. A patch for the 703rd Bomb Squadron is still sewn on the front of the jacket.

In November 1997, Los Angeles County Supervisor Mike Antonovich led an unsuccessful attempt to have Los Angeles International Airport renamed in Stewart's honour .

Personal life

After World War II, Stewart settled down at age 41, marrying former model Gloria Hatrick McLean on August 9, 1949. They remained devotedly married until her death on February 16, 1994, due to lung cancer. Stewart adopted her two sons, Michael and Ronald, and together they had twin daughters, Judy and Kelly, on May 7, 1951. Ronald McLean was killed in action on June 8, 1969, at the age of 24, while serving in Vietnam.

Stewart was rumored to have had an affair with his Destry Rides Again costar Marlene Dietrich, who reportedly had an abortion after becoming pregnant by Stewart. According to Gary Fishgall, author of Pieces of Time: The Life of James Stewart, writer Erich Maria Remarque had written diary entries in which he discloses conversations he had with Dietrich in which she tells him that she had sex with Stewart. Fishgall states that Remarque's diary also reveals that Stewart insisted on the abortion and that Dietrich did so with regrets because she "blamed herself for getting pregnant." In Steven Bach's biography of Dietrich, Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend, he claims that Dietrich's daughter, Maria, "fifty years (after the affair) later ... told people who would listen that Stewart had made Marlene pregnant during the making of Destry, that Marlene confronted him with the fact on a dance floor in Hollywood, that Stewart (unmarried) walked away without a word, and that Marlene (married) did what women do who don't want unexpected souvenirs of romance." (page 253, Bach, Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend).

While visiting India in 1959, he reportedly smuggled the remains of a supposed yeti, the so-called Pangboche Hand, by hiding them in his luggage (specifically, in Gloria's underwear) when he flew from India to London, as a favour to Tom Slick.


Politically, Stewart was a conservative, and a strong supporter of the Republican party. He also supported blacklisting in Hollywood in the 1950s. Ironically, one of his best friends was Henry Fonda, despite the two having vastly different political ideologies (Stewart a conservative Republican, Fonda a liberal Democrat).


From the beginning of James Stewart's career in 1935 through his final theatrical project in 1991, Stewart appeared in ninety-two films, television programs, and shorts. Through the course of his career, he appeared in many landmark and critically acclaimed films, including such classics as Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and Vertigo. His roles in ...Washington, The Philadelphia Story, It's a Wonderful Life, Harvey, and Anatomy of a Murder earned him Academy Award nominations (he won for Philadelphia). Stewart's career defied the boundaries of genre and trend, and he made his mark in screwball comedies, suspense thrillers, westerns, and family films.

Broadway stage performances

  • Carry Nation (Oct. 1932–Nov. 1932)
  • Goodbye Again (Dec. 1932–Jul 1933)
  • Spring in Autumn (Oct. 1933–Nov. 1933)
  • All Good Americans (Dec. 1933–Jan. 1934)
  • Yellow Jack (May 1934)
  • Divided By Three (Oct. 1934)
  • Page Miss Glory (Nov. 1934–Mar. 1935)
  • A Journey By Night (Apr. 1935)
  • Harvey (Nov. 1944–Jan. 1949)
  • Harvey (revival, Feb. 1970–May 1970)


Year Award Work
Academy Awards
1985 Honorary Award Lifetime Achievement
1941 Best Actor The Philadelphia Story
1960 Best Actor Anatomy of a Murder
1951 Best Actor Harvey
1946 Best Actor It's a Wonderful Life
1940 Best Actor Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
BAFTA Awards
1960 Best Foreign Actor Anatomy of a Murder
1955 Best Foreign Actor The Glenn Miller Story
Golden Globes
1974 Best TV Actor - Drama Hawkins
1965 Cecil B. DeMille Award Lifetime Achievement
1951 Best Motion Picture Actor - Drama Harvey
Preceded by:
Robert Donat
for Goodbye, Mr. Chips
Academy Award for Best Actor
for The Philadelphia Story
Succeeded by:
Gary Cooper
for Sergeant York

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