2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Birds

How to read a taxobox
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Subfamily: Accipitrinae
  • Accipiter
  • Micronisus
  • Melierax
  • Urotriorchis
  • Erythrotriorchis

The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses:

  • Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. The large and widespread Accipiter genus includes goshawks, sparrowhawks , the Sharp-shinned Hawk and others. They are mainly woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. They usually have long tails and high visual acuity.
  • More generally, to mean small to medium-sized birds that are members of the Accipitridae, the family which includes the true hawks (Accipiters) and also eagles, kites, harriers, buzzards, and Old World vultures.
  • Loosely, to mean almost any bird of prey.

The common names of birds in various parts of the world often use hawk loosely. For example, in North America, the Buteos are called "hawks".

In February 2005 the Canadian scientist Dr Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian IQ in terms of their innovation in feeding habits. Hawks were named among the most intelligent birds based on this scale.

Hawks are believed to have vision as good as 20/2, about eight times more acute than humans with good eyesight. This is because of many photoreceptors in the retina (Up to 1,000,000 per square mm, against 200,000 for humans), a very high number of nerves connecting the receptors to the brain, a second set of eye muscles not found in other animals, and an indented fovea, which magnifies the central part of the visual field.

Species list

This list is in taxonomic order to show the relationships between species.

  • Subfamily Accipitrinae
    • Genus Accipiter
      • Goshawk, A. gentilis
      • Eurasian Sparrowhawk, A. nisus
      • Grey-bellied Goshawk, A. poliogaster
      • Crested Goshawk, A. trivirgatus
      • Sulawesi Goshawk, A. griseiceps
      • Red-chested Goshawk, A. toussenelii
      • African Goshawk, A. tachiro
      • Chinese Goshawk, A. soloensis
      • Frances's Sparrowhawk, A. francesii
      • Spot-tailed Goshawk, A. trinotatus
      • Grey Goshawk, A. novaehollandiae
      • Brown Goshawk, A. fasciatus
      • Black-mantled Goshawk, A. melanochlamys
      • Pied Goshawk, A. albogularis
      • Fiji Goshawk, A. rufitorques
      • White-bellied Goshawk, A. haplochrous
      • Moluccan Goshawk, A. henicogrammus
      • Grey-headed Goshawk, A. poliocephalus
      • New Britain Goshawk, A. princeps
      • Black Goshawk, A. melanoleucus
      • Henst's Goshawk, A. henstii
      • Meyer's Goshawk, A. meyerianus
      • Chestnut-flanked Sparrowhawk, A. castanilius
      • Nicobar Sparrowhawk, A. butleri
      • Levant Sparrowhawk, A. brevipes
      • Slaty-mantled Sparrowhawk, A. luteoschistaceus
      • Imitator Sparrowhawk, A. imitator
      • Red-thighed Sparrowhawk, A. erythropus
      • Little Sparrowhawk, A. minullus
      • Japanese Sparrowhawk, A. gularis
      • Small Sparrowhawk, A. nanus
      • Rufous-necked Sparrowhawk, A. erythrauchen
      • Collared Sparrowhawk, A. cirrocephalus
      • New Britain Sparrowhawk, A. brachyurus
      • Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk, A. rhodogaster
      • Madagascar Sparrowhawk, A. madagascariensis
      • Ovampo Sparrowhawk, A. ovampensis
      • Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk, A. rufiventris
      • Shikra, A. badius
      • Tiny Hawk, A. superciliosus
      • Semicollared Hawk, A. collaris
      • Sharp-shinned Hawk, A. striatus
      • White-breasted Hawk, A. chionogaster
      • Plain-breasted Hawk, A. ventralis
      • Rufous-thighed Hawk, A. erythronemius
      • Cooper's Hawk, A. cooperii
      • Gundlach's Hawk, A. gundlachi
      • Bicoloured Hawk, A. bicolor
      • Besra, A. virgatus
    • Genus Micronisus
      • Gabar Goshawk, M. gabar
    • Genus Melierax
      • Dark Chanting Goshawk, M. metabates
      • Eastern Chanting Goshawk, M. poliopterus
      • Pale Chanting Goshawk, M. canorus
    • Genus Urotriorchis
      • Long-tailed Hawk, U. macrourus
    • Genus Erythrotriorchis
      • Red Goshawk, E. radiatus
      • Chestnut-shouldered Goshawk, E. buergersi
    • Genus Megatriorchis
      • Doria's Goshawk, Megatriorchis doriae
  • Subfamily Buteoninae
    • Genus Parabuteo
      • Harris's Hawk, P. unicinctus
    • Genus Buteogallus
      • Common Black Hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus
      • Mangrove Black Hawk, Buteogallus subtilis
      • Great Black Hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga
      • Rufous crab Hawk, Buteogallus aequinoctialis
      • Savanna Hawk, Buteogallus meridionalis
    • Genus Busarellus
      • Black-collared Hawk, Busarellus nigricollis
    • Genus Leucopternis
      • Plumbeous Hawk, Leucopternis plumbea
      • Slate-coloured Hawk, Leucopternis schistacea
      • Barred Hawk, Leucopternis princeps
      • Black-faced Hawk, Leucopternis melanops
      • White-browed Hawk, Leucopternis kuhli
      • White-necked Hawk, Leucopternis lacernulata
      • Semiplumbeous Hawk, Leucopternis semiplumbea
      • White Hawk, Leucopternis albicollis
      • Grey-backed Hawk, Leucopternis occidentalis
      • Mantled Hawk, Leucopternis polionota

Hawks and humans

  • Hawks are sometimes used in falconry, a sport in which trained hawks, eagles or falcons, are used to pursue and catch small game.
  • In the US, hawks are sometimes shot for sport or by ranchers who believe the birds may depredate livestock. This makes hawk conservation an issue in some areas. In other parts of the world, most hawk species are protected by law

Retrieved from " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawk"