2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical elements

96 americiumcuriumberkelium


Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table
Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96
Chemical series actinides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f
Appearance silvery
Atomic mass (247) g/mol
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 13.51 g·cm−3
Melting point 1613  K
(1340 ° C, 2444 ° F)
Boiling point 3383 K
(3110 ° C, 5630 ° F)
Heat of fusion  ? 15 kJ·mol−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1788 1982        
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Oxidation states 3
( amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 581 kJ/mol
Magnetic ordering no data
CAS registry number 7440-51-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of curium
iso NA half-life DM DE ( MeV) DP
242Cm syn 160 days SF - -
α 6.1 238Pu
243Cm syn 29.1 y α 6.169 239Pu
ε 0.009 243Am
SF - -
244Cm syn 18.1 y SF - -
α 5.902 240Pu
245Cm syn 8500 y SF - -
α 5.623 241Pu
246Cm syn 4730 y α 5.475 242Pu
SF - -
247Cm syn 1.56×107 y α 5.353 243Pu
248Cm syn 3.40×105 y α 5.162 244Pu
SF - -
250Cm syn 9000 y SF - -
α 5.169 246Pu
β- 0.037 250Bk

Curium ( IPA: /ˈkjuːriəm/) is a synthetic element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cm and atomic number 96. A radioactive metallic transuranic element of the actinide series, curium is produced by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles (helium ions) and was named for Marie Curie and her husband Pierre.

Notable characteristics

The isotope curium-248 has been synthesized only in milligram quantities, but curium-242 and curium-244 are made in multigram amounts, which allows for the determination of some of the element's properties. Curium-244 can be made in quantity by subjecting plutonium to neutron bombardment. Curium does not occur in nature. There are few commercial applications for curium but it may one day be useful in radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Curium bio-accumulates in bone tissue where its radiation destroys bone marrow and thus stops red blood cell creation.

A rare earth homolog, curium is somewhat chemically similar to gadolinium but with a more complex crystal structure. Chemically reactive, its metal is silvery-white in colour and the element is more electropositive than aluminium (most trivalent curium compounds are slightly yellow).

Curium has been studied greatly as a potential fuel for Radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Curium-242 can generate up to 120 watts of thermal energy per gram (W/g); its very short half-life though makes it undesirable as a power source for long-term use. Curium-242 is the precursor to plutonium-238 which is the most common fuel for RTGs. Curium-244 has also been studied as an energy source for RTGs having a maximum energy density ~3 W/g, but produces a large amount of neutron radiation from spontaneous fission. Curium-243 with a ~30 year half-life and good energy density of ~1.6 W/g would seem to make an ideal fuel, but it produces significant amounts of gamma and beta radiation from radioactive decay products.

Compounds include:

  • curium dioxide (CmO2)
  • curium trioxide (Cm2O3)
  • curium bromide (CmBr3)
  • curium chloride (CmCl3)
  • curium tetrafluoride (CmF4)
  • curium iodide (CmI3)


Curium was first synthesized at the University of California, Berkeley by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, and Albert Ghiorso in 1944. The team named the new element after Marie Curie and her husband Pierre who are famous for discovering radium and for their work in radioactivity. It was chemically identified at the Metallurgical Laboratory (now Argonne National Laboratory) at the University of Chicago. It was actually the third transuranium element to be discovered even though it is the second in the series. Curium-242 ( half-life 163 days) and one free neutron were made by bombarding alpha particles onto a plutonium-239 target in the 60-inch cyclotron at Berkeley. Louis Werner and Isadore Perlman created a visible sample of curium-242 hydroxide at the University of California in 1947 by bombarding americium-241 with neutrons. Curium was made in its elemental form in 1951 for the first time.


19 radioisotopes of curium have been characterized, with the most stable being Cm-247 with a half-life of 1.56 × 107 years, Cm-248 with a half-life of 3.40 × 105 years, Cm-250 with a half-life of 9000 years, and Cm-245 with a half-life of 8500 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 30 years, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 33 days. This element also has 4 meta states, with the most stable being Cm-244m (t½ 34 ms). The isotopes of curium range in atomic weight from 233.051 u (Cm-233) to 252.085 u (Cm-252).

Nuclear fuel cycle

The MOX which is to be used in power reactors should contain little or no curium as the neutron activation of this element will create californium which is a strong neutron emitter. The californium would pollute the back end of the fuel cycle and increase the dose to workers. Hence if the Minor actinides are to be used as fuel in a thermal neutron reactor the curium should be excluded from the fuel or placed in special fuel rods where it is the only actinide present.

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